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Parkman, Francis. The California and Oregon Trails: Sketches of Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life. Chicago: Scott and Foresman, 1911 (originally published 1849).

Parsons, John E., ed. Sam Colt’s Own Record of Transactions with Captain Walker and Eli Whitney Jr. in 1847. Hartford: Connecticut Historical Society, 1949.

Pettis, Captain George. Kit Carson’s Fight with the Comanche and Kiowa Indians. Santa Fe: Historical Society of New Mexico, 1908.

Plummer, Rachel. Rachel Plummer’s Narrative of Twenty-one Months of Servitude as a Prisoner Among the Comanche Indians.

Quaife, Milo Milton. Kit Carson’s Autobiography. Lincoln: University of Nebrasaka Press (originally published by Bison Books in 1935).

Richardson, Rupert N. The Comanche Barrier to South Plains Settlement. Austin, Tex.: Eakin Press, 1996 (originally published 1933).

———. The Frontier of Northwest Texas 1846–1876. Glendale, Calif.: A. H. Clark Co., 1963.

Rister, Carl Coke. Border Captives. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955.

———. The Southwestern Frontier, 1865–1881. New York: Russell and Russell, 1966 (originally published 1928).

Rivera, Pedro De. Diario y Derrotero de lo camion ado, visto y observado en la visita que lo hizo a los presidios de la Nueva Espana septentrional. Edited by Visto Allesio Robles. Mexico D. F.: Secreteria de la Defensa Nacional, 1946.

Robinson, Charles M., III. Bad Hand: A Biography of General Ranald S. Mackenzie. Austin, Tex.: State House Press, 1993.

Roe, Frank G. The Indian and the Horse. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1962 (originally published 1955).

Roosevelt, T. R. Outdoor Pastimes of an American Hunter. New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1905.

Rose, Victor M. The Life and Services of General Ben McCulloch. Austin, Tex.: The Steck Co., 1958 (originally published 1888).

Ruxton, George F. Adventures in Mexico and the Rocky Mountains. London: J. Murray, 1861.

Schaff, Morris. The Spirit of Old West Point: 1858–1862. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1907.

Schilz, Jodye Lynne Dickson, and Thomas F. Schilz. Buffalo Hump and the Penateka Comanches. El Paso: University of Texas at El Paso Press, 1989.

Schmeckebier, Lawrence. The Office of Indian Affairs, Its History, Activities and Organization. New York: AMS Press, 1972.

Scott, Hugh Lenox. Some Memories of a Soldier. New York: The Century Co., 1928.

Sides, Hampton. Blood and Thunder: An Epic of the American West. New York: Doubleday, 2006.

Smith, Clinton. The Boy Captives; Being the True Story of the Experiences and Hardships of Clinton L. and Jeff D. Smith. San Antonio, Tex.: Cenveo, 2005 (originally published 1927).

Smith, Coho. Cohographs. Edited by Iva Roe Logan. Fort Worth: Branch-Smith Inc., 1976.

Smith, F. Todd From Dominance to Disappearance: Indians of Texas and the Near Southwest, 1786–1859. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2005.

Smithwick, Noah. Evolution of a State or Recollections of Old Texas Days. Compiled by Nanna Smithwick Donaldson, Gammel Book Company, 1900; reprint, Austin, W. Thomas Taylor, 1995.

Sommer, Charles H. Quanah Parker, the Last Chief of the Comanches. St. Louis: 1945, self-published.

Stiff, Colonel Edward. The Texan Emigrant. Cincinnati: George Conclin, 1840.

Tatum, Lawrie. Our Red Brothers and the Peace Policy of President Ulysses S. Grant. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1970 (originally published 1889).

Thomas, Alfred B. Forgotten Frontiers: a Study of the Spanish Indian Policy of Don Juan Batista de Anza, Governor of New Mexico, 1777–87. Norman: University of Oklahoma, 1932.

———. A Study of the Spanish Indian Policy of Don Juan Batista De Anza, 1777–78. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969 (originally published 1932).

Thompson, R. A. Crossing the Border with the Fourth Cavalry. Waco, Tex.: Texian Press, 1986.

Tilghman, Zoe A. Quanah: Eagle of the Comanches. Oklahoma City: Harlow Publishing, 1938; Norman: Oklahoma Press, 1940.

Tolbert, Frank X. An Informal History of Texas. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1951.

Toole, K. Ross. Probing the American West. Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press, 1962.

Utley, Robert M. Lone Star Justice, The First Century of the Texas Rangers. New York: Berkeley Books, 2002.

Vestal, Stanley. Kit Carson: The Happy Warrior of the Old West. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1928.

Wallace, Ernest. “Final Champion of Comanche Glory,” The Great Chiefs. Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books 1975.

———. Ranald S. Mackenzie on the Texas Frontier. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1993.

———. Texas in Turmoil. Austin, Tex.: Steck-Vaughn Co., 1965.

Wallace, Ernest, and E. Adamson Hoebel. The Comanches: Lords of the South Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1952.

Webb, Walter P. The Texas Rangers, a Century of Frontier Defense. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, 2003 (originally published 1935).

———. The Great Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, Bison Books, 1981 (originally published 1931).

Weems, John Edward. Death Song: The Last of the Indian Wars. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1976.

West, G. Derek. The Battles of Adobe Walls and Lyman’s Wagon Train, 1874. Canyon, Tex.: Panhandle Plains Historical Society, 1964.

White, E. E. Experiences of a Special Indian Agent. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965 (originally published 1893).

Wilbarger, J. W. Indian Depredations in Texas. Austin: Pemberton Press, 1967 (originally published 1889).

Williams, Amelia W., and Eugene C. Barker. The Writings of Sam Houston, 1813–1863, 8 volumes. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1938–1943, vol. 4.

Winfrey, Dorman H., and James M. Day, eds. The Indian Papers of the Southwest, 5 volumes. Austin, Tex.: Pemberton Press, 1959–1966.

Winship, George Parker. The Coronado Expedition 1540–42. New York: A. S. Barnes and Co., 1904.

Wissler, Clark. The American Indian. New York: Oxford University Press, 1922.

———. Man and Culture. New York: Thos. Crowell, 1923.

———. North American Indians of the Plains. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1927.

Yenne, Bill. Sitting Bull. Yardley, Pa.: Westholme Publishing, 2008.

Zesch, Scott. Captured: The True Story of Abduction by Indians on the Texas Frontier. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004.


Anderson, Adrian N. “The Last Phase of Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie’s 1874 Campaign Against the Comanches.” West Texas Historical Association Yearbook 40 (1964): 74–81.

Brink, Wellington. “Chief Quanah and the Leopard Coat Man.” In Farm and Ranch, April 17, 1926.

Burton, Harley True. “History of the JA Ranch.” In Southwestern Historical Quarterly 31 (October 1927): 93.

Clarksville Northern Standard, April 6, 1861.

Clarksville Northern Standard, May 25, 1846.

Dodge, T. A. “Some American Riders.” Harpers New Monthly Magazine, May 1891, p. 862.

Dunn, William E. “The Apache Mission on the San Saba River, Its Founding and Its Failure.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 17 (1914): 379–414.

Fortune, Jan Isbelle.“The Recapture and Return of Cynthia Ann Parker.” Groesbeck Journal, May 15, 1936, p. 1.

Gielo, Daniel J., and Scott Zesch, eds. “Every Day Seemed to Be a Holiday”: The Captivity of Bianca Babb. Southwestern Historical Quarterly 47 (July 2003): 36.

Gilles, Albert S., Sr. “A House for Quanah Parker.” Frontier Times, May 1966, p. 34.

Green, F. E., ed. “Ranald S. Mackenzie’s Official Correspondence Relating to Texas, 1873–79.” Museum Journal (Lubbock, West Texas Museum Association), 10 (1966).

Grinnell, G. B. “Who Were the Padoucas?” American Anthropologist 23 (1920): 260.

Haley, J. Evetts. “The Comanchero Trade.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 38, no. 3 (January 1935).

Haynes, Francis. “The Northward Spread of Horses Among the Plains Indians.” American Anthropologist 40 (1938): 428–37.

———. “Where Did the Plains Indians Get Their Horses?” American Anthropologist 40 (1938): 112–17.

Hobart Democrat-Chief (Oklahoma), August 4, 1925, Panhandle Plains Museum Archives.

Hunta, J. W. “Nine Years with the Apaches and Comanches,” Frontier Times 31 (July–September 1954): 251–77.

Jones, Lawrence T. “Cynthia Ann Parker and Pease Ross: The Forgotten Photographs.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly, June 1990, p. 379.

Mason, A. B. “The White Captive.” Civilian and Gazette, 1860 (reprint of story in The White Man).

Mooney, James. “The Aboriginal Population of America North of Mexico.” Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 80, no. 7 (1928).

———. “Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians.” Seventeenth Annual Report. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Ethnology, 1898.

Neighbors, Kenneth. “Battle of Walker’s Creek.” West Texas Historical Association Yearbook, 1965.

Nielsen, Soren. “Ranald S. Mackenzie: The Man and His Battle.” West Texas Historical Assn. Yearbook 64, p. 140.

Norris, David A. “Confederate Gunners Affectionately Called Their Hard Working Little Mountain Howitzers ‘Bull Pups.’” American’s Civil War, September 1995, pp. 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, and 90.

Oates, Stephen B. “Texas Under the Secessionists.” Southwestern Historical Quarterly 67 (October 1963): 167.

Opler, Marvin. “The Origins of Comanche and Ute.” American Anthropologist 45 (1943).

Pate, J’Nell. “The Battles of Adobe Walls.” Great Plains Journal 46 (Fall 1976): 3.

Pettis, Captain George. “Kit Carson’s Fight with the Comanche and Kiowa Indians.” Historical Society of New Mexico (1908), p. 7.

“Quanah Parker in Adobe Walls Battle.” Borger News Herald, date unknown, Panhandle Plains Historical Museum Archives, based on interview with J. A. Dickson.

Richardson, Rupert N. “The Comanche Indians and the Fight at Adobe Walls.” Panhandle Plains Historical Review 9 (1936).

———. “The Comanche Indians and the Fight at Adobe Walls.” Panhandle Plains Historical Review 4 (1931).

Rister, C. C., ed. “Documents Relating to General W. T. Sherman’s Southern Plains Indian Policy 1871–75.” Panhandle Plains Historical Review 9 (1936).

Roe, F. G. “From Dogs to Horses Among the Western Indian Tribes.” Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa, 1939, Third Series, Section II.

Stanley, Henry M. “A British Journalist Reports the Medicine Lodge Councils of 1867.” Kansas Historical Quarterly 33 (1967).

Taylor, Alfred A. “Medicine Lodge Peace Council.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 2, no. 2 (June 1924).

Thompson, W. A. “Scouting with Mackenzie.” Journal of the United States Cavalry Association 10 (1897).

Tingley, Donald F. “The Illinois Days of Daniel Parker, Texas Colonizer.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, no. 51 (1958).

Wallace, Ernest. “David G. Burnet’s Letters Describing the Comanche Indians.” West Texas Historical Assoc. Yearbook 30 (1954).

———. “The Comanche Eagle Dance.” Texas Archaeological and Paleontological Society Bulletin 18 (1947).

———. “The Comanches on the White Man’s Road.” West Texas Historical Assoc. Yearbook 29 (October 1953).

———. “The Journal of Ranald S. Mackenzie’s Messenger to the Kwahadi Comanches.” Red River Valley Historical Review 3, no. 2 (Spring 1978): 229–46.

———. “Prompt in the Saddle, The Military Career of Ranald S. Mackenzie.” Military History of Texas and the Southwest 9, no. 3 (1971): 161–67.

Wedel, Waldo R. “An Introduction to Pawnee Archeology.” Bureau of American Ethnography Bulletin, no. 112, p. 4, map 4.

Wellman, Paul. “Cynthia Ann Parker.” Chronicles of Oklahoma 12, no. 2 (1934): 163.

West, G. Derek. “The Battle of Adobe Walls (1874).” Battles of Adobe Walls and Lyman’s Wagon Train, 1874. Canyon, Tex.: Panhandle Plains Historical Society, 1964.

Whisenhunt, Donald W. “Fort Richardson.” West Texas Historical Association Yearbook 39 (1963): 23–24.

White, Lonnie. “Indian Battles in the Texas Panhandle.” Journal of the West 6 (April 1967): 283–87.

———. “Kansas Newspaper Items Relating to the Red River War of 1874–1975.” Battles of Adobe Walls and Lyman’s Wagon Train 1874. Canyon, Tex.: Panhandle Plains Historical Society, 1964, pp. 77–78.

Williams, Robert H. “The Case for Peta Nocona.” Texana 10, no. 1 (1972): 55.

Winn, Mamie Folsom. “History Centers About Cynthia Ann Parker’s Home.” In Women Tell the Story of the Southwest by Maddie L. Wooten. San Antonio, Tex.: The Naylor Company, 1940.

Wissler, Clark. “The Influence of the Horse in the Development of Plains Culture.” American Anthropologist 16, no. 1 (1914): 1–25.

Worcester, D. E. “Spanish Horses Among the Plains Tribes.” Pacific Historical Review 14 (December 1945): 409–17.

———. “ The Spread of Spanish Horses in the Southwest.” New Mexico Historical Review 19 (July 1944): 225–32.

Newspaper accounts of Pease River:

Galveston Daily Citizen, December 13, 1860, “Indian News.”

Galveston Daily Citizen, January 15, 1861, “Indian News.”

Materials pertaining to the Indian attacks leading up to the Pease River Fight:

The White Man, September 13, 1860.


Brown, Marion. Marion T. Brown: Letters from Fort Sill, 1886–1887. Austin: The Encino Press, 1970.

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Annual Reports 1830–1875.

Council Meeting of May 23, 1884, Kiowas, 17:46, Oklahoma Historical Society.

Gulick, Charles Adams, Jr. The Papers of Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, vols. 2 and 4. Austin: Von Boeckmann-Jones Co., 1924.

Hackett, Charles, ed. Historical Documents Relating to New Mexico, Nueva Vizcaya, and approaches thereto to 1773 (from TRF).

House of Representatives Executive Documents, 30th Congress.

Jerome, David. Hearing at Fort Sill with Comanches, Kiowas, and Apaches, September 26, 1892, Panhandle Plains Museum Archives.

Kappler, Charles J., ed. Indian Affairs Laws and Treaties, Washington, Government Printing Office, vol. 2, 1903.

Linger, Bob, to Quanah Parker, March 9, 1909, Neeley Archive at Panhandle Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, Texas.

Mackenzie’s Official Report, Oct. 12, 1872: “1872, Sept. 29, Attack on Comanche Village,” Addressed to the Asst. Adjutant General, Department of Texas.

“Messages of the President, Submitted to Both Houses,” December 21, 1838, Lamar Papers, Doc. 948.

Morgan, Commissioner T. J., to Agent Adams, December 18, 1890, Kiowa Agency files, Oklahoma Historical Society.

Parker, Quanah, to Charles Adams, May 13, 1890, Kiowa Agency files, Oklahoma History Center.

Smither, Harriet, ed. Journals of the Fourth Congress of the Republic of Texas, vols. 1 and 3.

Ten Bears’ Speech at Medicine Lodge Peace Council, 1867. Record Copy of Proceedings of the Indian Peace Commission appointed Under Act of Congress Approved July 20, 1867. Records of the Secretary of the Interior, National Archives, vol. I,

pp. 104–106.

Twitchell, Ralph E. Spanish Archives of New Mexico, 2 vols. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1914.

Wallace, Ernest, ed. Ranald S. Mackenzie’s Official Correspondence Relating to Texas, 1871–73. Lubbock: West Texas Museum Association, 1967.

Winfrey, Dorman H., and James M. Day, eds. The Indian Papers of Texas and the Southwest, 5 vols. Austin: Pemberton Press, 1959–1966.

Individual Letters

Augur, C. C., to Mackenzie, August 28, 1874, Mackenzie’s Official Correspondence Relating to Texas, Museum Journal, vol. 10, 1966 (see books).

Butler, P. M., and M. G. Lewis to the Hon. W. Medill, Commissioner of Indian Affairs,

August 8, 1848, House Executive Documents No. 1, 30th Congress, Second Session,

p. 578.

Davidson, Colonel J. W., to Asst. Adjutant General, October 29, 1878, House Executive Document, 45th Congress, Third Session, p. 555.

Haworth, J. M., to William Nicholson, August 26, 1877, Kiowa Agency Microform, National Archives.